Monday, July 13, 2020
Equilibrium Price Equilibrium Price HomeâºEconomics PostsâºEquilibrium Price Economics PostsOn the vertical axis we have P which represents Price and on the horizontal axis we have Q which represents Quantity. D1 is the demand curve and S1 is the supply curve. The equilibrium condition is given at the point where the demand curve intersect with the supply curve or at the point where quantity demanded is equals to the quantity supplied. In this case it is given by point e. At point e, equilibrium price and equilibrium quantity is determined. For that case, the corresponding value for price which is the equilibrium price is 10 and the corresponding value for quantity which is the equilibrium quantity is 40. Therefore, at the point of intersection we get two corresponding values for price and quantity as 10 and 40 respectively. This represents the equilibrium price (10) and equilibrium quantity (40 units).Initially the equilibrium condition is reached at point, e, where the equilibrium price is given by 10 and equilibrium quantity given by 40. As the income of the consumer increases, it will lead to a shift of the demand curve from D 1 to D 2. When the demand curve shift and the supply curve remain, the quantity demanded and the price of the commodity will be affected. The equilibrium position will shift from point, e, to point, E1. This means that new equilibrium quantity and price will be established. In that case, the new equilibrium quantity will be Q1 and the new equilibrium price will be P1.Compare to the initial equilibrium price and quantity, an increase in income has resulting in a rise in both price and quantity. The initial equilibrium price (10) has moved to a new equilibrium price denoted by P1 indicating an increase of (P1 10) and the initial equilibrium quantity (40) has moved to a new equilibrium quantity denoted by (Q1) indicating an increase by (Q1 40) units.The product demanded by the consumer is a normal good since, as the income of the consumer increase th e quantity demanded for the by the consumer also increases. This indicates a direct proportionality between income and the product demand.Business cyclesBusiness cycles also termed as economic cycles refers to the ups and downs as well as economy-wide fluctuations in an economy or production over many months or years. These ups and downs take place around a growth trend which is long-term. It involves change over time between boom/expansion (times when the economy is experiencing rapid growth), and recession/contraction (representing periods of relative decline or stagnation). Business cycle measurement is based on real GDP (Gross Domestic Product) growth rate. The business cycles do not follow a predictable or mechanic periodic pattern, despite being referred to as cycles. It is a market economy characteristic feature through alternating contractions and expansions characterizing a business cycle or through alternating slowdowns and speedups characterizing cycles in growth. An econ omyâs growth is not steady. It is characterized by patterns such as a peak, a trough/low-point, a contraction and an expansion. The patterns repeats itself though not predictable or regularly.The business cycleThe business cycle/economic cycle are linked to an economyâs overall economic activity. The main indicator of business cycle is the GDP (Gross Domestic product). However, due to the variations in GDP, NBER (National Bureau of Economic Research) have indicated employment, industrial production as well as personal income as indicators of business cycles.Phases of business cycleThe business cycle is categorized into four major phases, namely, expansion, peak, recession and trough. Expansion represents an economic period where the economic activity and consumer confidence is increased. The expansionary phase is made up of two parts recovery and boom. Recovery represents the initial part of the expansionary phase. During recovery consumer confidence starts to build up and some consumers begin to replace items, for example, small appliances and clothes. The business will start to increase or replace their inventory levels due to consumer demand.Also business output will begin to increase and employment opportunities created. In this part unemployment rate will reduces but on the other hand there is occurrence of inflation. The second part is boom (McEachern 213). Consumerâs confidence continues to build up in a faster pace. This is witnessed by increased purchase of consumer goods. The business will employ more people resulting to an increase in the national income as well as a reduction in unemployment rates.Consumers during this time start to purchase more goods including durables like houses and cars. Business also starts to invest in machines and equipments hence improved efficiency. The price of goods will increase and workers will also receive high wages. The rate of inflation will be high and unemployment rate will fall as the economy moves toward s full employment.Peak; this phase is reached at when the expansionary phase is at climax. The economy experiences a standstill and level off in output. In this phase consumer confidence starts to take a declining trend and they begin to slow their purchase of goods.Contraction is the third phase and represents an economic period where both economic activity and consumer confidence are in a decline. Contraction phase comprise of two parts recession and depression. Recession represents a period where consumer confidence starts to decline. Durable and large goods such as cars, houses and major appliances are avoided by the consumers. Therefore, business activity starts to shrink through reduced output. Prices fall and a time workers receive wage cuts. It results in increased unemployment levels and eventually less buying and inflation starts to drop.The second part is depression; in this face consumer totally lose confidence. This leads to slow pace of purchase. The businesses are f orced to get rid of their stock levels and lower their production levels considerably to be in low levels. Business opts to lay off workers as a way to cut cost. As a result, unemployment rate rises and the national income reduced. The prices of goods fall considerably and as a result, companies close down or go bankrupt. Unemployment levels skyrocket and inflation is non-existent.TroughThis is the last phase of business cycle. It represents the minimal or low-point of contraction. There is leveling off and standstill of output. Again, consumer confidence begins to level off to a point where consumers minimize their savings and do a little of commodity purchase.The causes of recent recessionThe recent recession witnessed is attributed to four reasons that include; credit crunch, falling houses prices, cost push inflation as well as collapse in financial sector confidence.Credit crunch is a situation whereby there is shortage of cash and as a result there is less or no money to lend as loans. This can result due to a unexpected interest rate increase, capital markets lack of funds and government direct money control. The recent credit crunch is attributed to a sharp rise subprime mortgages default. The default occurred in US but its effects of shortage in cash cut across the whole world. The mortgage lenders in US sold mortgages to people with poor loan history and low income (Melvin William, 89).The incentive of paying brokers after selling a mortgage, leads to mortgage sell even when chances of default were high. When the US increased the interest rates due to inflation repayment of mortgage loans become expensive and many Americans could not afford as a result mortgage defaults increased. The US housing boom came to an end bringing down house prices hence could not guarantee a secured loan. As defaulters increase mortgage companies collapsed. As a result banks lost a lot of billions of pounds due to bad mortgage. The end result was difficulty to borrow and raise funds in the whole world. It also resulted in high interbank lending cost hence the money market dried up. The decline in borrowing has lead to a slowing economy bringing forth a real problem.With the high interest rates, homeowners experienced cost push inflation due to rising food prices, rising petrol prices and health care costs. The high cost of health care, fuel and food has resulted in reduced consumer disposable income. As a result, the homeowners have a big problem in repaying their mortgages.The other cause is credit default swaps. For instance, insurance company such as AIG that were supposed to insulate investment banks from defaulters of loan was also involved in the problem. Their operations in other countries were also troubled creating a worldwide problem.The recent recession began in 2006 during the beginning of the summer when the prices of homes started to decline. The homeowners started to default on loan due to high interest rates as well as payment amount s. As a result they started to âwalk awayâ from 2008 because of negative equity.The great recession come to a technical end during mid-2009. The current recession is regarded as the worst recession not only resulted in job losses, high unemployment levels, high inflation rates and fuel and food prices, it lasting for a longer period of time nearly 18 months. Again, the recession is spread worldwide and the economic health of a country was uncertain. A lot of companies lay off their workers with minimal monthly sales being witnessed in most companies. The recent depression is categorized as the worst one in the post war era. It effects were felt in the whole world and recovery from it will take a long time.
Wednesday, May 20, 2020
Personal Narrative Self Identity Throughout most of my childhood, I have been predominantly exposed to nothing but the Chinese culture. When my parents first immigrated to the United States from Canton, China, they rented a small apartment located right in the heart of Chinatown. Chinatown was my home, the place where I met all my friends, and the place where Id thought Id never leave. I spoke only Cantonese, both to my friends and to my parents. Everyone I was around spoke fluent Cantonese, and I never spoke anything other than Cantonese. I was pretty much secluded from the outside world because I never left Chinatown, for I felt this was my home. However, my parents felt differently. They wanted meÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Annes, a Catholic school that consisted mostly of Caucasian. Although I am a quick learner, it was especially hard for me because I had to learn English. I did whatever I could to blend in. I bought cafeteria food and ate American lunches like bologna sandwiches and peanut butter and jelly. Most of my friends were Caucasian, and I joined clubs associated with Caucasians. I tried so hard to fit in so that I would be accepted. I did whatever my friends did. I begged my parents to buy me trendy clothing and designer labels. The haircut I had was also very similar to that of my friends. I spoke like them and adopted their ways. I wanted no longer to be Asian. I hated that part of me. I just wanted to be American. I hoped that by doing everything they did and following their ways, I would be accepted despite the fact that I wasnt white. In fifth grade, a new student was enrolled into my class. His name was Bradford Chin. Bradford reminded me of myself when I first came- conservative, traditional, and very studious. Not knowing any better, I felt somewhat embarrassed around him. I believed that his appearance would be a reminder to everyone of the person I was before. Because of this I ignored and avoided him as often as I could. One day, I was eating lunch with my friends and I glanced over towards Brad. I noticed he was eating one of my favorite Chinese pastries,Show MoreRelatedPersonal Narrative : Self Definition And Identity2000 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesSection one: Self definition and identity My is name Kyra Alexandra Avila Kepfer. Kyra is my momÃ¢â¬â¢s name and Alexandra comes from my dadÃ¢â¬â¢s middle name Ã¢â¬Å"AlexanderÃ¢â¬ . My DadÃ¢â¬â¢s last name, Avila, is from Spain and Guatemala. My mom s last name, Kepfer, is German. My mom was originally going to call me Katherine Andrea. My names meaning is light, throne, and sun. Since my momÃ¢â¬â¢s name is also Kyra my family calls me Kyrita which is my name in spanish. At times my mom will call me Ã¢â¬Å"AlexÃ¢â¬ which is shortRead MoreThe Development of Identity1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesErikson also noted that identity is not only developed by the individual but also, through interaction with, recognition and confirmation of friends and family. Showing how just like in particular Internet sites, children learn social competence through Ã¢â¬Å"cliquesÃ¢â¬ and large crowds of people who impose various types of influences (SchÃ ¶pflin). This concept relates back to two assumptions based on identity. Ã¢ â¬Å"IdentityÃ¢â¬ is currently used in two concurrent senses, one of which is Ã¢â¬Å"personalÃ¢â¬ and the other Ã¢â¬Å"socialÃ¢â¬ Read MoreAnalyzing the Views of Mackenzie and Schechtman on Personal Identity1655 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand Schechtman on Personal Identity Introduction The concept of personal identity or personhood is a very complex area of philosophy that challenges our most basic understandings of mind and matter. Philosophers have generally settled into either the school of mind, or consciousness, and the school of body. As our ability to study the mind grows, through developments in psychology and neurology, consciousness-based theories have come to dominate the discussion of personal identity and body-basedRead MoreTajfel And Turner Social Identity Theory1462 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesTajfel Turner, (1979) the proponents of social identity theory helped in the understanding of intergroup relations. The emphasis the complex Ã¢â¬Å"interweaving of an individual or interpersonal behavior with contextual social processes of intergroup conflictÃ¢â¬ (p.276). Social identity theory, thus emphasizes intergroup relations (the relationship an individual has with his group and between an outgroup) and categorical distinction (what sets an individual apar t from another outgroup). Korostelina describesRead MoreMixed Culture And Mixed Race Identity970 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThis section seeks to understand how mixed race individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ social identities are shaped by their multiracial heritage by focusing on the growing body of research on development of mixed race identity in a multicultural society. In contrast to traditional, monoracial models of social identity development, a multiracial approach has been necessitated by the expansion of globalization and interracial relationships (Kellogg Liddell, 2012, p. 525). In ParaggÃ¢â¬â¢s (2017) study Ã¢â¬Å"What are you?Ã¢â¬ : Mixed raceRead MoreDescribe Locke s Account Of Personal Identity933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesLockeÃ¢â¬â¢s account of personal identity, and explain how SchechtmanÃ¢â¬â¢s notion of narrative might help solve the Ã¢â¬Å"breakfastÃ¢â¬ and the Ã¢â¬Å"brave officerÃ¢â¬ problems. John LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s account of personal identity is rooted in a general account of identity. The identity of living creatures Ã¢â¬Å"depends not on a mass of the same particles, but on something elseÃ¢â¬ (Locke, 13). This is to say that our bodies are constantly changing and so is the substance that makes it. Before finding what personal identity consists of, itÃ¢â¬â¢sRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1698 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesyour culture. To fully understand self-identity you need to investigate all the cultures you are included in your family and heritage. In the short story, Ã¢â¬Å"Everyday UseÃ¢â¬ Alice Walker takes a deep look into heritage. This story has a complicated relationships between the mamma and her two daughters. In this short story, it shows that your heritage will form your life. This will make you the person you are today. Culture is one of the most important part of self-identity. It contributes to how an individualRead MoreÃ¢â¬Å"If You Want To Know Me, You Must Know My Story, For My1514 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmy story defines who I am (McAdams, 1993).Ã¢â¬ Dr. Dan P. McAdams Narrative Theory of Identity is the story one tells about how they came to be the person they are becoming. McAdams is a Personality Scientist and a Professor and Chair of the Department of Psychology at Northwestern University. Among other things McAdams is involved in he is still currently researching narrative approaches to psychology, the conceptions of identity and self in modern society, and generativity and adult development. InRead MoreSocial Relationships Of A Teacher s Environment942 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagestold through narratives. Narratives establish meaning to the teacher story and provide answers about teacher identity. The use of narratives also serves as a conduit for the delivery of teacher knowledge in their content area (Kratka, 2015). According to (Linde, 2001), stories can be used to illustrate immeasurable knowledge that exists wit hin the social relationships of a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s environment. Narratives focus on knowledge created by the experiences that develop a teacherÃ¢â¬â¢s personal story. ThereforeRead MoreHow Does Jasper Fforde s The Eyre Affair Testify?1419 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHow does Jasper FfordeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Eyre Affair testify to the importance of reading in the formation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self-identity? Many aspects contribute to the formation of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s self-identity. Whether it be their surroundings, their culture, their language, or even otherÃ¢â¬â¢s personal identities, they all shape oneÃ¢â¬â¢s perception of the world, the self-imposed rules surrounding them, and where they believe they belong within it. This world is encompassed with stories, and they contribute to the fabrication
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Does the media create negative self image in women? According to NY Daily news, Ã¢â¬Å"The average American watches more than five hours of television every dayÃ¢â¬ . People all over the world are victims of the media, whether it is online, television, magazines, billboards, etc. The mass media has a very powerful impact on what we do, how we act, and how we portray ourselves and others. Along with general entertainment, the media is used for advertising, campaigning, and so on. Over time the media has continued to expand, influencing something much bigger and self concerning; body image. Women of all races and body types are advertised in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s culture, where some are described to be more favorable than others. In most of these advertisements you see are women who appear to set very unrealistic expectations. The mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s capability of manipulating an image may play a large role in the widespread body dissatisfaction. The growth of technological advancements over the years has became very controversial on being a positive or a negative development. Photographers have access to a countless number of editing and enhancement tools, and they do not see anything wrong with doing so. Jeff Schewe from Photoshop news says We have wonderful tools to create images, new digital cameras and photographic digital printers and powerful tools such as Photoshop and we are expected to do what -- nothing? I don t think so,. Before an image is released to the public it would be distorted toShow MoreRelatedThe Influence of Mass Media on the Young Male Image Essay1645 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Mass media creates a stereotype promoting an image of how a young man should act, appear, or resemble in todays society. The media has a great influence over what we view and hear as a society and it can have an effect especially on a younger men and the image that they want to portray. Moreover, the media has a lot to do with the image we perceived in our minds and young men are easily perusable by what they see or hear. With the media flooding negative influence, it builds up to having thisRead MoreSocial Media And Its Impact On Society1224 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Social media is a variety of platforms provided to the public as a medium for expression and communication. Seemingly, social media could be viewed as a positive contribution to society, but one must consider the underlying effects of society. Many of us donÃ¢â¬â¢t take into account the role that social media plays in the way we perceive things, think, and live our lives. Social media plays a critical part in societal norms. Ã¢â¬Å"Social norms are rules of conduct that governs interactions among individualsRead More Understanding the Causes of Negative Body Image Essay518 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Understanding the Causes of Negative Body Image I chose to read the book titled Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding the Causes of Negative Body ImageÃ¢â¬ by Barbara Moe because I plan on focusing my research paper on how the media has strong control over womenÃ¢â¬â¢s development of self-esteem and body image. The message that the media is sending creates the context within which people learn to value size and shape of their body. MoeÃ¢â¬â¢s book focuses on how our culture is preoccupied with weight and appearanceRead MoreStudies of Social Media and its Effects on AdolescentÃ¢â¬â¢s Body Image 1166 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagestechnology has evolved into something people cannot live without. Mixed in with all of the improvements, social media has become a major asset in the lives of people. Social media can include websites like Facebook, Twitter and Instagram, but can also include video games and magazines. However, social media is not always genuine. In the mindset of adolescents, these medias help to create unrealistic ideas of who they are and who they should be. As if going through puberty isnÃ¢â¬â¢t difficult enough, teenagersRead MoreMedia s Effect On Self Esteem1731 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe media has become ever-increasingly present in our everyday lives. The latest fashion editorials and the most exclusive celebrity selfies are always just a click away. Something so pervasive, however, should be intently studied and handled with extreme caution due to the vast influence it can have over its audienceÃ¢â¬â¢s mind. Too much exposure to certain stimuli has previously been shown to affect cognition and behavior in adolescents. So why should media be any different? Social media appsRead MoreSocial Media and its Effect on Eating Disorders793 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesthe internet on social media websites, leaving harsh marks on all who read them, especially the extremely impressionable youth of America. TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s youth is becoming heavily reliant on social media outlets such as Tumblr, Instagram, and Facebook, but it comes with a problematic cost, mental disorders on the rise. Eating disorders, depression, bipolar disorder, and other mental disorders are rapidly becoming more and more common in hospitals all across the nation, and social media is fueling the fireRead MoreA Social Web Laced With Poison914 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand social media have brought power back to the people.Ã¢â¬ It makes sense that he would possess such a positive view of social media, because his job more or less depends on it. However, the reality is a little less sunshine and rainbows. Social media has undoubtedly changed the way humans can communicate with each other, even making it possible to contact people in a far off country. There is a bit of a catch though. For all of its perks, social media is creating a profoundly negative effect on thoseRead MoreSocial Media And Its Effects On Society Essay1605 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOver the duration of time, I have noticed the great deal of power that media has influenced on how women ought to appear. The relationship between social media and its users is a high effect on people and causes many problems. We are constantly thrown images of women and men to categorize what is eye catching. It has been clear that social media has blossomed in the last few decades to only deliver us with messages. Social media is applying to us, th at looking more like the Kardashians and less likeRead MoreBody Image And Dissatisfaction Of The Thin Ideal1577 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Body Image and Dissatisfaction The mediaÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of the Ã¢â¬Å"thin idealÃ¢â¬ has caused people to modify their personal perception of body image, which is defined as the Ã¢â¬Å"internal representation of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own outer appearance reflecting physical and perceptual dimensionsÃ¢â¬ (Borzekowski; Bayer). This notion is akin with self-esteem and self-concept possibly resulting in individuals having an inadequate body image as well as low self-esteem. The term Ã¢â¬Å"body dissatisfactionÃ¢â¬ is defined as a negativeRead MoreThe Between Media And Body Image1348 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesconstructed by the society and by the media. But women are affected that kind of construction. Mass media give narrow definition about the standard of beauty. Delis noticed this massage everywhere, especially in the media, Ã¢â¬Å"I am so affected by Glamour magazine and Vogue and all that; IÃ¢â¬â¢m looking at all these beautiful women. TheyÃ¢â¬â¢re thin. I want to be just as beautiful. I want to be just as thin. Because that is what guys likeÃ¢â¬ (Hesse-Biber, Sharlene Nagy 12). The media representation of the thin ideal
Black Pillow 2002 by Frank Moore is set on a cornfield during daylight. In the background of the canvas there is a large factory with some plants and butterflies. The edge of this artwork has a yellow border and parts of this canvas are also lightly filled with the color yellow as well. We will write a custom essay sample on Black Pillow by Frank Moore or any similar topic only for you Order Now On the left side of the canvas, there is a farmer in overalls that does not seem like he cares about what he is doing, pumping gas into the roots of the cornfield as he glowers into space. One the bottom of the canvas you can find the gasoline spilling all over the pillow of the cornfield, the white roots from the corn stand out from the black color of the gasoline. The art elements shown in Ã¢â¬Å"Black PillowÃ¢â¬ are that it has a very warm feel to it since warm colors are used; it almost makes you feel like you are there outside in the hot field and gasoline. It is loosely spaced out since there is no color in the background that fills it up a lot except for some yellow lines and spots. It definitely has bold colors to it and has no greyscale in it. The yellow has a significant contrast from the background and the black as well. The line of the corn leaves looks very alive and natural while the roots in the gasoline are stiff, rough and dead looking. This canvas shows how humans and industrialization are harming the corn crops by the gasoline, since gasoline consists of ten percent ethanol which comes from cornfields. The color yellow in the border of this artwork symbolizes rotting, heat, decay and death. Which fits in well with this theme since the careless farmer is pumping gas all over the roots of the cornfield. The gasoline which represents the color black means the coldness, negativity and evil that is pouring and taking over the corn which the color yellow can also symbolize joy, happiness, and optimism. The white root of the corn symbolizes how the innocence is being besieged by the gasolineÃ¢â¬â¢s coldness and evil. The gasoline in the pillow of the soil is where it gets its name Ã¢â¬Å"Black PillowÃ¢â¬ . Personally, I believe Frank Moore got his message across in this artwork. He is portraying the decay of cornfields because of the increase in oil industry. The color symbolism is prevalent because the oil is the evil that is invading the cornfields for the benefit of more resources. It shows the evolution of where the oil comes from and how it is not used properly and is wasted on an everyday basis which causes pollution. Frank MooreÃ¢â¬â¢s point for this artwork is to show how ignoble humans are today and how bestial we are to our world enervating its natural beauty for our own selfish purposes. This topic is very imperative to our society today since gasoline is in high demands and our worldÃ¢â¬â¢s pollution is getting worse by each day. How to cite Black Pillow by Frank Moore, Essay examples
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Intellectual property laws have long been known to serve as market stabilizers. This function is especially achieved by getting rid of the low success rates for upstart companies occasioned by open systems that allow some people to use other individualsÃ¢â¬â¢ creations especially for intangible goods like what MoneyGram offers.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Intellectual property laws specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Intangible goods are generally viewed as an easy way for earning profits since not much investment is required in terms of physical assets as would be the case in institutions involved in production of tangible goods. Unfortunately, this intangibility has the drawback of it being easy for other people to reproduce the said intellectual creations without any limitations and in the process Ã¢â¬ËstealingÃ¢â¬â¢ some of the clients from the initial innovators. In reality, the latter would be losing profits and customers that rightfully belong to them. Intellectual property rules and regulations are thus created to guide and stabilize the market eliminating counterfeits as well as to encourage innovative business ventures. This stability once established in a particular market helps reduce the risk associated with innovation. As long as rules are in place to protect the respective rights of the creator of a business idea, the more likely are his or her chances of success in the market. In the case of competition, these rules serve to ensure that the competitor does not illegally gain advantage by merely imitating the new product that has been brought into the market. The Brazilian market has been secured by the introduction of vital measures targeted at ensuring its stability. Corporation laws have over time been improved tremendously with the major aim being the promotion of cooperation among stakeholders as well as safeguarding the interests of minority shareholders . The Brazilian government has been at the forefront in the creation of suitable environments that encourage innovation of technology based institutions. Stability in such ventures however has been achieved by ensuring that the intellectual property strategies of the companies are well respected. This has been entrenched in the industrial property law that was instituted into the constitution of the country a few years ago. Developments in the legal systems of the land so the introduction of intellectual property and copyright measures particularly for software. A recent proposal is what is commonly referred to as the InnovationÃ¢â¬â¢s Law; a legal measure that is expected to support the transitioning business strategies from paper to the real market.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More The Brazilian federal agency for fostering innovation embodies rules and regulatio ns that guide how intellectual property rights will be used in the securing of contracts. This means that the agency promotes full refunding in case a contract is breached. This is particularly important for companies like MoneyGram which enter into the market without distinct goods to use as guarantees. While presenting the idea to the relevant state authorities for approval, care will be taken to ensure that a proper valuation of the new intangible assets being introduced into the market. The risks involved while going into the venture should be minimalized to ensure that decent gains are made from the project. Since Money Gram is already in operation in the country, the idea to introduce a multiple send currency remittance will be received as supportive intangible property to the entire enterprise. The ownership of this introduction will be on a third party basis and this is where the intellectual property laws will come in- to ensure that the innovators receive their due rights especially in terms of gains made from the idea. Trademark Protection The multiple send currency remittance feature that is set to be included to the Money Gram program is an independent and autonomous feature. It can therefore stand on its own as a subsidiary under the whole company and will therefore need to have identity features unique to it that will be used to distinguish it from other services offered by the company as well as competitors. A trademark needs to be registered for this service and this will include features such as the name of the service, a special logo created to distinguish the service, colors designated to be used in the logo. All these have to be registered in compliance with rules applicable within the country. When filing a trademark in Brazil, it is worth noting that the Industrial Property Law 9279/96 gives innovators the right to withhold information on what they intend to do with the trademark; at least until the time of registration (Garland, 1979). This is very important as it will ensure that intellectual property rights are respected by eliminating the situations that could lead to an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s idea being used elsewhere without his/her knowledge. The Brazilian property law also generally ensures that the first person to file the logo gets full rights to use it. However, article 129(1) allows for the individual who has been using a particular logo (or one similar to it) in good faith for a period of at least six months to have first priority (Gadbaw, Richards, 1988).Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Intellectual property laws specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Once a trademark application has been filed, and a legally accepted analysis conducted, the trademark (logo or symbol) is posted on the bulletin board for a period of not less than two months. This will give a chance to anybody that would be willing to challenge the application a pe riod of 60 days in which to present their contention. If such contention is filed, it is once again posted on the bulletin board and the applicant is once again given a period of 60 days in which to respond to the opposition. If the answer submitted by the applicant is not satisfactory, the application will be turned down and the applicant allowed a further 60 days in which to submit an appeal. If an appeal is not filed within the stipulated time, the application is regarded as abandoned and the decision to reject it stands. On the other hand, if no contention for the trademark after the application has been posted on the bulletin board for a period of 60 days, a notice is posted on the board to alert the applicant that he or she has a period of 60 days in which to clear the issuance fees. If these fees are not paid within the specified time, the application is declared abandoned and is not allowed to pass through. Should the fees be paid on time, the final consenting authority allo wing for registration is published. In a period not exceeding 180 days, the opposing parties are allowed to seek nullification of registration. Once a trademark has been registered, it is associated to the person who registered for a period of ten years after which he or she is required to register afresh. If the trademark is not in use for a period of more than five consecutive years, it can be cancelled and therefore anyone willing to use it can file an application (Abbott, Cottier, Gurry, 1999). Once the relevant procedures seeking approval to commence delivery of the service have been cleared, a creative panel will be sought to come up with a unique trademark for the new feature of the Money Gram services and the appropriate registration procedures followed to consolidate its legality. Point of sale software As a new service within the MoneyGram franchise, the multiple send currency remittance feature will need the installation of new software to support its operation. These ar e programs that will basically support the transfer of various kinds of currencies from the same point without necessarily requiring for the service provider to go through rigorous currency exchange computations.Advertising Looking for research paper on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Since Moneygram already uses DeltaWorks software alongside Agent connect, it will not make much business sense to purchase them again. Instead an upgrade of the existing software is recommended in the various Agent locations. Computer programming service providers and software developers will be contracted to come up with additional software that can either be used alongside DeltWorks and AgentConnect software or if necessary integrated into the two. These software should have the capability to record an in-depth inventory of all the transactions made on the system as well as being easy enough for the average user in an agent location to perform these transactions effectively. The point of sale software to be used should be installed in both sender locations and on the receiver side in order to provide for accountability. It would actually not make sense to have the sender transfer funds in one currency only for the transaction to be halted because the recipient has no capacity to h andle completion of the funds transfer. The good thing about this product is that it does not involve the selling of tangible goods or clearly visible services. This means that the software which enables the transaction is most likely the only software needed at the point of sale. Elaborate software for analyzing the performance of the product in the market and analyzing the profits made in a given time will not be required at the point of sale and most of these functions will be studied at the head office of the company. SWOT Analysis Strengths The service to be introduced into the MoneyGram franchise particularly in Brazil has the primary strength of being completely new in the country. None of the competing companies offering money transfer services in Brazil have implemented a multiple send currency remittance feature in their service. This will make Money Gram a pioneer hence providing for the chance to not only secure clientele, but to also maintain customer loyalty in case co mpetition emerges in future. Another strength of this service and probably the more reason why it is bound to receive accreditation from MoneyGram is that it seeks to complement the services already being provided by the company. This service is also bound to be very attractive to regular users of money transfer services; most of whom have to undergo strenuous currency exchange procedures before transfers are made. Sometimes a lot of money is deducted from what they original had in order to pay for the exchange service (Terry, 2005). Aside from increasing the revenue earned by MoneyGram international, this service will make the company a competitive giant in the region. Weaknesses The main weakness of this service is that it is not the kind of product that yields profits immediately. The cost of setting up the new systems may be slightly on the higher side and MoneyGram International may not be willing to let its systems be interfered with in the process of implementing the upgrades . The project is also based on the premise that a lot of people are now immigrating to Brazil and the assumption is that they would wish to send money to their respective countries in the particular currency formats of these countries. It is however difficult to confirm that these clients will be willing to abandon service providers with whom they have established some degree of loyalty for an off-paper service that has yet to prove itself in the market. Finally, the project is based on the assumption that the number of multiple send currency remittance requests will be sufficient enough to support the service as a self standing department of Money Gram International. Opportunities The opportunities that guide this service include the very fact that the migration of people from countries bordering Brazil into the country is on a rapid upward trend. This means that once the program has been unfolded, the new immigrants will find it the most convenient of all money transfer services a vailable. The project will capitalize on the newly introduced funding systems introduced by the Brazilian government to fund developing ventures within the country. This will help reduce the burden of funding thus giving the service more chances of picking up in the market. Unlike an exclusively start up company, this service will depend on infrastructure already installed by Money Gram international. It will also initially rely on the current MoneyGram clientele to spread the word. This therefore means that most of the resources that would have been redirected to equipment purchase would be used to perfect the development of the project-a factor that will immensely contribute to its success. Threats The major threat to any new innovation is imitation. This will unavoidably present once the service has been proven successful, and competitors begin to see MoneyGram International as a company begin to Ã¢â¬ËsnatchÃ¢â¬â¢ clientele from them. The rules in Brazil like in any other par t of the world are not entirely water tight. They come with loopholes that competitors can capitalize on to create a remarkably similar product but change a few aspects and patent it as a new service altogether. Luckily, since this is an entirely new innovation in the country, the company can count on customer loyalty based on the assumption that an imitation can never be totally as good as the original. As much as money transfer services are gaining ground in Brazil, so are banking systems. There is a very big possibility that in the prospective future most of the immigrants will prefer to directly transfer funds from their accounts to bank accounts in their destination countries. These threats however are not sealed and ways to circumvent them will develop as the service gets into the market. Reference List Abbott, F.M., Cottier, T., Gurry, F. (1999).The international intellectual propertyÃ system: commentary and materials. Netherlands: Kluwer Law International. Gadbaw, R.M., Richards, T.J. (1988). Intellectual property rights: global consensus,Ã global conflict? San Francisco: Westview Press. Garland, P.G. (1978). Doing business in and with Brazil. Brasilia: Banco Lar Brasileiro. Terry, F.D. (2005). Beyond small change: making migrant remittances count.Ã Washington: Inter-American Development Bank This research paper on Intellectual property laws was written and submitted by user Abrielle Anthony to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Expert's Guide to the AP Literature Exam SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips If you're planning to take theAP English Literature and Composition exam, you'll need to get familiar with what to expect from the test. Whether the 2019 test date ofWednesday, May 8 is near or far,IÃ¢â¬â¢m here to help you get serious about preparing for the exam. In this guide IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go over the test's format and question types, howit's graded, best practices for preparation, and test day tips. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be on your way to AP English Lit success in no time! AP English Literature: Exam Format and Question Types The AP Literature Exam is a three-hour exam that contains two sections. First is an hour-long, 55-question multiple choice section, and then a two hour, three question free-response section. The exam tests your ability to analyze works and excerpts of literature and also cogently communicate that analysis in essay form. Read on for a breakdown of the two different sections and their question types. Multiple Choice Section The multiple-choice section, or Section I of the exam, is 60 minutes long and has 55 questions. You can expect to see 4-5 excerpts of prose and poetry. You will, in general, not be given an author, date, or title for these works, although occasionally the title of a poem is given. Unusual words are also sometimes defined for you. The date ranges of works could fall from the 16th to the 21st century. Most works will be originally written in English, although you may occasionally see a passage in translation. There are, generally speaking, eight kinds of questions you can expect to see on the AP English Literature and Composition test. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll break each of themdown here and give you tips on how to identify and approach them. "Tiny books carried by ladies" is not one of the question types. The 8 Multiple-Choice Question Types on the AP Literature Exam Without further ado, here are the eight question types you can expect to see on the AP lit exam. All questions are taken from the sample questions on the Ã¢â¬Å"AP Course and Exam Description.Ã¢â¬ Reading Comprehension These are questions that test your ability to understand what the passage is saying on a pretty basic level. They donÃ¢â¬â¢t require you to do a lot of interpretation- you just need to know what is actually going on. You can identify these from words and phrases like Ã¢â¬Å"according to,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"asserting,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"mentioned,Ã¢â¬ and so on. Basically, words that point to a fairly concrete register of meaning. You can succeed on these questions by careful reading of the text. You may have to go back and re-read parts to make sure you understand what the passage is saying. Example: Inference These questions ask you to infer something- a character or narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion, an authorÃ¢â¬â¢s intention, and so forth- based on what is said in the passage. It will be something that isnÃ¢â¬â¢t stated directly or concretely, but that you can assume based on what is stated clearly in the passage. You can identify these questions from words like Ã¢â¬Å"infer,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"imply.Ã¢â¬ The key to these questions is to not be tripped up by the fact that you are making an inference- there will be a best answer, and it will be the choice that is best supported by what is actually found in the passage. In many ways, inference questions are like second-level reading comprehension questions- you need to know not just what a passage says, but what it means. Example: Identifying and Interpreting Figurative Language These are questions in which you have to either identify what word or phrase is figurative language or provide the meaning of a figurative phrase. You can identify these as they will either explicitly mention figurative language (or a figurative device like simile or metaphor) or will include a figurative language phrase in the question itself. The meaning of figurative language phrases can normally be determined by the phraseÃ¢â¬â¢s context in the passage- what is said around it? What is the phrase referring to? Example 1: Identifying Example 2: Interpreting Literary Technique These questions involve identifying why an author does what they do: from using a particular phrase to repeating certain words. Basically, what techniques is the author using to construct the passage/poem and to what effect? You can identify these questions bywordslike Ã¢â¬Å"serves chiefly to,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"effect,Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"evoke,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"in order to.Ã¢â¬ A good way to approach these questions is to ask yourself, so what? Why did the author use these particular words or this particular structure? Example: Character Analysis These questions will ask you to describe something about a character. You can spot them because they will refer directly to charactersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitudes, opinions, beliefs, or relationships with other characters. This is, in many ways, a special kind of inference question since you are inferring the broader personality of the character based on the evidence in a passage. Also, these crop up much more commonly for prose passages than poetry ones. Example: Overall Passage Questions Some questions will ask you to identify or describe something about the passage/poem as a whole: its purpose, tone, genre, etc. You can identify these byphrases like Ã¢â¬Å"in the passage,Ã¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"as a whole.Ã¢â¬ To answer these questions, you need to think about the excerpt with a birdÃ¢â¬â¢s-eye view. What is the overall picture created by all the tiny details? Example: Structure Some questions will ask you about specific structural elements of the passage- a shift in tone, a digression, the specific form of a poem, etc.Often these questions will specify a part of the passage/poem and ask you to identify what that part is accomplishing. Being able to identify and understand the significance of any shifts- structural, tonal, in genre, etc- will be of key importance for these questions. Example: Grammar/Nuts Bolts Very occasionally you will be asked a specific grammar question, such as what word an adjective is modifying. I would also include in this category very specific questions like the meter of a poem (i.e. iambic pentameter). These questions are less about the literary artistry and more about the fairly dry technique involved in having a fluent command of the English language. Example: That covers the 8 question types! Keep track of these. The AP Literature Free-Response Section Section II of the exam is two hours long and involves three free-response essay questions- so you'll have roughly 40 minutes per essay. Note, though, that no one will prompt you to move from essay to essay, so you can theoretically divide up the time how you want (but be sure to leave enough time for each essay). The first two essays are literary analysis essays of specific passages, with one poem and one prose excerpt- and the final is an analysis of a given theme in a work selected by you, the student. Essays One and Two - Literary Passage Analysis For the first two essays, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be presented with an excerpt and directed to analyze the excerpt for a given theme, device, or development.One of the passages will be poetry, and one will be prose.You will be provided with the author of the work, the approximate date, and some orienting information (i.e. the plot context of an excerpt fromanovel). Sample Questions (from 20 Free Response Questions) Poetry: Prose: Essay Three - Thematic Analysis For the third and final essay, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be asked to discuss a particular theme in a work that you select.You will be provided with a list of notable works that address the given theme below the prompt, but you can also choose to discuss any Ã¢â¬Å"work of literary merit.Ã¢â¬ So you DO have the power to choose which work you wish to write an essay about, but the key word here is Ã¢â¬Å"literary merit.Ã¢â¬ So no genre fiction! Stick to safe bets like authors in the list on pages 10- of the Course and Exam Description. (I know, I know- lots of Ã¢â¬ËgenreÃ¢â¬â¢ fiction works DO have literary merit, and Shakespeare actually began as low culture, and so on and so forth. You may well find academic designations of Ã¢â¬Å"literary meritÃ¢â¬ elitist and problematic, but the time to rage against the literary establishment is not your AP lit test.) HereÃ¢â¬â¢s a sample question (from 20): As you can see, the list of works provided spans many different time periods and countries:there are ancient Greek plays (Antigone), modern literary works (like Margaret AtwoodÃ¢â¬â¢s The Blind Assassin or Barbara KingsolverÃ¢â¬â¢s The Poisonwood Bible), Shakespeare plays (The Merchant of Venice), 19th-century Russian lit (Crime and Punishment), and so on. You might even see something by this guy. How Is the AP Literature Test Graded? The multiple-choice section of the exam comprises 45% of your exam score. The three essays comprise the other 55%. Each essay, then, is worth about 18%. As on other AP exams, your raw score will be converted to a score from 1-5. You donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to get every point possible to get a 5 by any means- but the AP English Literature test does have one of the lowest 5 rates of all APs, with only 5.6% of students receiving 5s in 2018. But how do you get raw scores at all? Multiple-Choice Scoring For the multiple-choice section, you receive a point for each question you answer correctly. There is no guessing penalty, so you should answer every question- but guess only after eliminating any answer that you know is wrong to up your chances of choosingthe correct one. Free-Response Scoring Scoring for multiple choice is pretty straightforward. However, essay scoring is a little more complicated. Each of your essays will receive a score from 0-9 based on the College Board rubric. You can actually find question-specific rubrics for all of the released free-response questions for AP English lit (see Ã¢â¬Å"scoring guidelinesÃ¢â¬ ). While all of the rubrics are broadly similar, there are some minor differences between each of them. IÃ¢â¬â¢ll go over the rubrics now- both what they say and what they mean for you. Poetry Passage Analysis Rubric Score What the College Board Says What it Means 9-8 These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays offer a range of interpretations; they provide a convincing reading and analysis of the poem. They demonstrate consistent and effective control over the elements of composition appropriate to the analysis of poetry. Their textual references are apt and specific. Though they may not be error-free, these essays are perceptive in their analysis and demonstrate writing that is clear and sophisticated, and in the case of a 9 essay, especially persuasive. Your argument is convincing and it addresses all elements of the prompt. You interpret the language of the poem in a variety of ways (i.e. your analysis of the poem is thorough). Your essay is particularly well-written and well-organized. You appropriately reference specific moments in the poem to support your argument. A 9 essay is particularly persuasive. 7-6 These essays reasonably address the assigned task. They are less thorough or less precise in the way they address the task, and their analysis is less convincing. These essays demonstrate an ability to express ideas clearly, making references to the text, although they do not exhibit the same level of effective writing as the 9-8 papers. Essays scored a 7 present better-developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt, but your analysis is not as complete or convincing as a 9-8 essay. You do make specific references to the poem and your writing is clear and effective, but not necessarily masterful. 5 These essays respond plausibly to the assigned task, but they tend to be superficial in their analysis. They often rely on paraphrase, which may contain some analysis, implicit or explicit. Their analysis may be vague, formulaic, or minimally supported by references to the text. There may be minor misinterpretations of the poem. These essays demonstrate some control of language, but they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7-6 essays. You answer the prompt in a way that is not implausible or unreasonable, but your analysis of the poem is surface-level. You may paraphrase the poem instead of making specific references to its language. You may not adequately support your analysis of the poem, or you may misinterpret it slightly. Your essay is not a total mess, but not necessarily particularly well-organized or argued. 4-3 These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the poem. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant, or ignore part of the assigned task. Evidence from the poem may be slight or misconstrued, or the essays may rely on paraphrase only. The essays often demonstrate a lack of control over the conventions of composition: inadequate development of ideas, accumulation of errors, or a focus that is unclear, inconsistent, or repetitive. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt. Your analysis of the poem is incomplete or incorrect, or you do not reference any specific language of the poem. Your essay is undeveloped, unclear, or poorly organized. A 3 essay either significantly misinterprets the poem or is particularly poorly written. 2-1 These essays compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4Ã¢â¬â3 range. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s assertions are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the poem. These essays may contain serious errors in grammar and mechanics. They may offer a complete misreading or be unacceptably brief. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the poem. Only minimal attempt is made to respond to the prompt. Essay is disorganized or not supported by evidence from the poem. May contain numerous grammar and mechanics errors. May completely misinterpret the poem or be too short. A 1 essay barely mentions the poem. 0 These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. - These essays are entirely blank You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t write anything! Prose Passage Analysis Rubric Score What the College Board Says What it Means 9-8 These essays persuasively address the assigned task. These essays make a strong case for the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation. They may consider a variety of literary devices, and they engage the text through apt and specific references. Although these essays may not be error-free, their perceptive analysis is apparent in writing that is clear and effectively organized. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored an 8. Your argument is convincing and addresses all parts of the prompt. You discuss a number of literary devices in your analysis and use specific and appropriate excerpts from the text as evidence in your argument. Your writing is clear, focused, and well-organized. A 9 essay has a particularly well-developed interpretation of the text and is better-written than an 8. 7-6 These essays reasonably address the task at hand. The writers provide a sustained, competent reading of the passage, with attention to a variety of literary devices. Although these essays may not be error-free and are less perceptive or less convincing than 9Ã¢â¬â8 essays, they present ideas with clarity and control and refer to the text for support. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. You address all elements of the prompt. Your interpretation is coherent and you reference multiple literary devices in your analysis. You do reference specific moments in the text for support. Your essay is adequately organized and focused. However, your argument may be less convincing or insightful (i.e. more obvious) than a 9-8 essay. 5 These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading of the passage but tend to be superficial or thin. While containing some analysis of the passage, implicit or explicit, the way the assigned task is addressed may be slight, and support from the passage may tend toward summary or paraphrase. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7Ã¢â¬â6 essays. You address the prompt, but your argument may be surface-level. You rely too much on summary or paraphrase of the text in your argument instead of using specific moments in the text. Your essay does have some elements of organization and focus but has some distracting errors. 4-3 These lower-half essays fail to offer an adequate analysis of the passage. The analysis may be partial, unconvincing, or irrelevant; the writers may ignore part of the assigned task. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading, demonstrate inept writing, or do both. You do not adequately address the prompt, whether because your argument is partly unrelated to the task at hand or simply ignores elements of the prompt. Your essay is poorly focused and/or repetitive and has little textual support. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the passage and/or is very poorly written. 2-1 These essays compound the weaknesses of the essays in the 4Ã¢â¬â3 score range. They may feature persistent misreading of the passage or be unacceptably brief. They may contain pervasive errors that interfere with understanding. Although some attempt has been made to respond to the prompt, the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas are presented with little clarity, organization, or support from the passage. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the passage. Essay does not adequately address the assigned task. It may be very short or repeatedly misinterpret the passage. May be poorly written enough that it is hard to understand. These essays may be unfocused, unclear, or disorganized. 0 These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. - These essays are entirely blank You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t write anything! Student Choice Rubric Score What the College Board Says What it Means 9-8 These essays offer a well-focused and persuasive analysis of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. Using apt and specific textual support, these essays address all parts of the prompt. Although these essays may not be error-free, they make a strong case for their interpretation and discuss the literary work with significant insight and understanding. Essays scored a 9 reveal more sophisticated analysis and more effective control of language than do essays scored 8. Your essay convincingly addresses the task in a way that is clear and focused. You reference many specific moments in the text in support of your argument. You build a strong case- with lots of evidence- in support of your interpretation of the text. Your argument shows a deep understanding of the text. A 9 essay has more complex analysis and is better-written than an 8. 7-6 These essays offer a reasonable analysis of the work of the assigned theme and how it relates to the work as a whole. These essays address all parts of the prompt. While these essays show insight and understanding, their analysis is less thorough, less perceptive, and/or less specific in supporting detail than that of the 9Ã¢â¬â8 essays. Essays scored a 7 present better developed analysis and more consistent command of the elements of effective composition than do essays scored a 6. Your essay addresses the task adequately. Your interpretation of the text is apt and shows that you generally understood it, although your analysis may be more conventional or include less specific textual evidence than a 9-8 essay. 5 These essays respond to the assigned task with a plausible reading, but they tend to be superficial or thinly developed in analysis. They often rely upon plot summary that contains some analysis, implicit or explicit. Although these essays display an attempt to address the prompt, they may demonstrate a rather simplistic understanding and support from the text may be too general. While these essays demonstrate adequate control of language, they may be marred by surface errors. These essays are not as well conceived, organized, or developed as 7Ã¢â¬â6 essays. Your essay addresses the prompt, but your argument may be very basic and/or rely too much on plot summary instead of true analysis of the text. Your essay may reveal that you do not thoroughly understand the text. Your essay may have some grammar/linguistic errors. Your essay is not especially well-organized or focused. 4-3 These lower-half essays fail to adequately address the assigned task. The analysis may be partial, unsupported, or irrelevant, and the essays may reflect an incomplete or oversimplified understanding of how a given theme functions in the text, or they may rely on plot summary alone. These essays may be characterized by an unfocused or repetitive presentation of ideas, an absence of textual support, or an accumulation of errors; they may lack control over the elements of college-level composition. Essays scored a 3 may contain significant misreading and/or demonstrate inept writing. Your essay does not address the prompt. Your analysis shows that you either do not understand how to address the prompt, cannot build support for your interpretation, or do not understand the text. Your essay may be poorly organized, poorly written and/or repetitive. A 3 essay significantly misinterprets the chosen work and/or is very poorly written. 2-1 Although these essays make some attempt to respond to the prompt, they compound the weaknesses of the papers in the 4Ã¢â¬â3 score range. Often, they are unacceptably brief or incoherent in presenting their ideas. They may be poorly written on several counts and contain distracting errors in grammar and mechanics. Remarks may be presented with little clarity, organization, or supporting evidence. Essays scored a 1 contain little coherent discussion of the text. Your essay does not address the prompt. It may be too short or make little sense. These essays may be unfocused, poorly organized, completely unsupported, and/or riddled with grammatical errors 0 These essays give a response that is completely off topic or inadequate; there may be some mark or a drawing or a brief reference to the task. No real attempt is made to respond to the prompt. - These essays are entirely blank You didnÃ¢â¬â¢t write anything! As you can see, the rubric for the poetry essay is focused more on poetic devices, and the rubric for the prose essay is focused more on literary devices and techniques. Both of those essays are very specifically focused on the analysis of the poem/prose excerpt. By contrast, the student choice essay is focused onhow your analysis fits into the work as a whole. To get a high-scoring essay in the 9-8 range, you need to not only come up with an original and intriguing argument that you thoroughly support with textual evidence, your essay needs to be focused, organized, clear, and well-written. And all in 40 minutes peressay! If getting a high score sounds like a tall order, thatÃ¢â¬â¢s because it is. The mean scores on each of the essays last year was around a 4 out of 9. That means, most essays were scored lower than a 5. So even getting a 7 on these essays is an accomplishment. If you write it down, it must be true! Skill-Building for Success on the AP Literature Exam There are several things you can do to hone your skills and best prepare for the AP Litexam. Read Some Books, Maybe More Than Once One of the most important things you can do to prepare yourself for the AP Literature and Composition exam is to read a lot, and read well. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll be reading a wide variety of notable literary works in your AP English Literature course, but additional reading will help you further develop your analytical reading skills. You might check out the College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s list of Ã¢â¬Å"notable authorsÃ¢â¬ on pages 10- of the Ã¢â¬Å"Course and Exam Description.Ã¢â¬ In addition to reading broadly, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to become especially familiar with the details of 4-5 books with different themes so that youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be sure to be prepared to write a strong student choice essay. You should know the plot, themes, characters, and structural details of these 4-5 books inside and out. See my AP English Literature Reading List for more guidance. Read (and Interpret) Poetry One thing students may not do very much on their own time, but that will help a lot with exam prep, is to read poetry. Try to read poems from a lot of eras and authors to get familiar with the language. When you think you have a grip on basic comprehension, move on to close-reading (see below). Hone Your Close Reading and Analysis Skills Your AP class will likely focus heavily on close reading and analysis of prose and poetry, but extra practice wonÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt you. Close-reading is the ability to identify which techniques the author is using and why they are using them. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll need to be able to do this both to gather evidence for original arguments on the free-response questions and to answer analytical multiple-choice questions. Here are some helpful close-reading resources for prose: The University of Wisconsin-MadisonÃ¢â¬â¢s writing center has a guide to close-reading. You can also check out this close-reading guide from the Harvard College Writing Center. The Purdue OWL has an article on steering clear of close-reading Ã¢â¬Å"pitfalls.Ã¢â¬ And here are some for poetry: The University of Wisconsin-Madison also has a poetry-reading guide. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s also an excellent guide to reading poetry at Poets.org, complete with two poetry close-readings. Learn Literary and Poetic Devices YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to be familiar with literary terms so that any questions that ask about them will make sense to you. Again, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll probably learn most of these in class, but it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t hurt to brush up on them. Here are some comprehensive lists of literary terms with definitions: About.com Literary Glossary Literary-Devices.Com list, which even has examples! Practice Writing Essays The majority of your grade on the AP English Lit exam comes from essays, so itÃ¢â¬â¢s critical that you practice your timed essay-writing skills. You of course should use the College BoardÃ¢â¬â¢s released free-response questions to practice writing complete timed essays of each type, but you can also practice quickly outlining thorough essays that are well-supported with textual evidence. Take Practice Tests Taking practice tests is a great way to prepare for the exam. It will help you get familiar with the exam format and experience. You can get sample questions from the Course and Exam Description, there are released College Board exams here, and we have a complete article on AP English Lit practice test resources. Be aware that the released exams donÃ¢â¬â¢t have complete slates of free-response questions, so you may need to supplement with released free-response questions (see link in above section). Since there are two complete released exams, you can take one towards the beginning of your prep time to get familiar with the exam and set a benchmark, and one towards the end to make sure the experience is fresh in your mind and to check your progress. Don't wander like a lonely cloud through your AP lit prep. AP Literature Test Day Tips Here are my top six tips for taking the exam: #1: On the multiple-choice section, itÃ¢â¬â¢s to your advantage to answer every question. If you eliminate all of the answers you know are wrong before guessing, youÃ¢â¬â¢ll up your chances of guessing the correct one. #2: DonÃ¢â¬â¢t rely on your memory of the passage when answering multiple-choice questions (or for writing essays, for that matter). Look back at the passage! #3: Interact with the text- circle, mark, underline, make notes, whatever floats your boat. This will help you retain information and actively engage with the passage. #4: This was mentioned above, but itÃ¢â¬â¢s critical that you know 4-5 books well for the student choice essay. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll want to know all the characters, the plot, the themes, and any major devices or motifs the author uses throughout. #5: Be sure to plan out your essays! Organization and focus are critical for high-scoring AP Literature essays. #6: Manage your time on essays closely. One strategy is to start with the essay you think will be the easiest to answer. This way youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be able to get through it while thinking about the other essays. And don't forget to eat breakfast! Apron optional. Key Takeaways The AP Literature exam is a three-hour exam: It includes one 55-question, hour-long multiple-choice section based on four-five prose and poetry passages, and a two hour free-response section with three essays- one analyzing a poetry passage, one analyzing a prose passage, and one analyzing a work chosen by the student. The multiple-choice section is worth 45% of your total score and the free-response section is worth 55%. Essays are scored on a rubric from 0-9. Raw scores are converted to a score from 1-5. Here are some things you can do to prepare for the exam: Read books, and be particularly familiar with 4-5 works for the student-choice essays Read poetry Work on your close-reading and analysis skills Learn literary devices Practice writing essays Take practice tests! On test day, be sure to really look closely at all of the passages and closely interact with them by marking the text in a way that makes sense to you. This will help on multiple-choice questions and the free-response essays. Be sure also to outline your essays before you write them! With all this mind, youÃ¢â¬â¢re well on your way to AP Lit success! What's Next? If you're taking other AP exams this year, you may be interested in our other AP resources: from the Ultimate Guide to the US History Exam,to the Best 2016 Review Guide for AP Chemistry, to the Best AP Psychology Study Guide, we have articles on tons of AP courses and exams. Looking for practice exams? Here are some tips on how to find the best AP practice tests. We also have comprehensive lists of practice tests for AP Psychology, AP Biology, AP Chemistry, and AP US History. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now:
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Consultation For Leaders In Management. Consultation For Leaders In ManagementOrganizations the world over are encouraging a shift from a management perspective to a leadership perspective instilled through team building so as to solve inflexibility and quicken decision-making. In this essay therefore, empowerment, whereby people are encouraged to make autonomous decisions and feel in control to the resultant outcomes, has been proposed as a means of allowing dissent, encouraging teamwork and innovation. Leaders should distribute authority rather than a hands-on control approach. This is implemented by changing the managerÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective by: influencing through context, creating a culture whereby all employees feel included, distributing authority without reclaiming, provision of logistical and moral support to employees, setting out a clear mandate and equipping the team for anticipated success. In order to influence through context, whereby trust is laid in a higher principle, belief and guiding force, the leader must aptly define the context and desired standards by giving team members the freedom to act and innovate thereby enhancing leadership, creating a competitive edge and nurturing proactive employees. Secondly, the leader should also nurture and empower a culture of inclusion whereby the leader should ensure that every team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s voice is heard despite their position. This atmosphere should encourage dissent as a foundation of objectivity and innovation whic h enables new ideas to be generated superior to those developed by the exercise of positional power. Thirdly, the leader should surrender positional authority and responsibilities without attempting to reclaim it so as to create pro-active employees. There is a transitory phase where the managers feel out of control and that things have gone awry and they are tempted to tighten control. This should be highly resisted. Leaders should further support the employee empowerment strategies put into place since empowerment involves giving responsibility and the freedom of choice so as to move from position of boss to coach. Also, the leaders should clearly articulate the common goal which the team is aiming at. Clarity of vision and roles played by various members should be enhanced so as to ensure accountability for specific goals and stay inbounds. Finally, equip the team members for success through training, resource allocation and information provision at all levels. This highly boosts the chances of success. (Lencioni) Management is distinct from leadership. Management employs a hands-on control whereas leadership allows responsibility allocation and freedom of choice. Management is characterized by managers having subordinates who are structured according to levels of formal authority. Management encompasses an authoritarian, transactional style whereby subordinates act on orders. It is transactional in the sense that employees are delegated duties in exchange for a salary or monetary reward. Further, managementÃ¢â¬â¢s focus is on work and is distinct in that managers are paid to work under time and money constraints. The work focus is naturally passed to their subordinates.Ã Finally, a recent study shows that managers seek comfort and prefer to avoid conflict through engaging in relatively risk-averse activities since they have been observed to come from upper-middle incomes and rich families. On the other hand, leaders do not have subordinates but rather have followers. When managers are le ading, they have to give up formal authority to encourage a following since this is usually voluntary. This style encompasses a charismatic and transformational style in that leaders have to appeal to team members in order to attract a following in risky and dangerous situations. They promise transformational awards not only through extrinsic rewards but also through value addition. Leadership focuses on peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s personalities rather than their work. Leaders do not necessarily have a loud personality or friendly attitude but rather maintain an aloof attitude and a degree of separation. They are achievement driven, but, instead of solely focusing on work, they enthuse others to work towards their goals. Finally, leaders seek risk and are risk takers rather than risk averse. They envision hurdles and problems and their respective solutions. They view risks as potential opportunities which have been attributed to the fact that most of them come from handicapped families in chall enging backgrounds. (Marcus Buckingham, 2008). The managers, by resisting empowerment through encouraging responsibility and allowing a freedom of choice, signify an attempt to manage rather than lead. The CEO is in essence, trying to break from a tradition of pure management and encompass skills in leadership by employing a consultant to chart on appropriate techniques to be employed. Ã There are several arguments in favor of leadership rather than management. First, managers should provide an inspiring vision and a strategic alignment in a team rather just control. The leader should envision the future and passionately believe on the aspired goals. Secondly, leadership is an influence relationship whereas management is an authority relationship which deters the team spirit. Leadership further defines direction through establishing a vision. This vision can easily be communicated and aligned into the team memberÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit and energy. In a team, there is a need to energize and inspire team members in order to overcome any obstacles rather than delegating duties and authority as is the case for management. Effective leadership brings about positive, much needed change and opens up channels for innovation. (Avolio, 2003) As a consultant, there are various steps that I propose that a manager should take to change from a management style to a leadership style. Managers should first clarify and codify their convictions. The manager should evaluate his values, beliefs and ethics, how they can be demonstrated, their link to the overall organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and how the manager can change to fit within the team. Any additional assistance needed to enhance personal and organizational success should be obtained. The managers should constantly re-evaluate these steps to serve as a reality check. People cannot be forced into a following; hence, the manager should then accord the organization time to change towards their convictions. The next step is for the manager to align his or her behavior according to the convictions so as to build a collaborative culture based on the direction desired. Identify individual team playerÃ¢â¬â¢s needs and their dreams in the workplace. Further, the manager should inte rview suppliers and customers on their specific needs in order to promote chance of success. Consultants further encourage managers to engage in conversation and communication. Listening is highly insisted upon so as to detect trends, themes and various possibilities. (Nahavandi, 2006) Empowerment has various outcomes. Key among them is decentralization whereby decision-making is as close to the action as possible hence quickening decision-making. This shall also lead to sharing of information n the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s goals and mission. The need to hoard and withhold information and knowledge in order to maintain control is surpassed by an openly shared information system that encourages operation on the basis of facts. Contingent rewards are also used so as to motivate team members who significantly contribute to the organization. Failure should not be automatically punished for this inhibits empowerment. Teams created ensure employees are not only responsible for their individual success but also their team members. This therefore serves to unify the employees. Alignment in an organization is compulsory so as to maintain coherence and direction by sharing common goals and vision. There are various recommendations on what the CEO should strive to attain. The CEO should ensure that: all team member participate in the formulation of a strategic plan and line of action; ensure effective communication through meetings, trainings, electronic bulletin boards, e-mails and oral channels such as the phones so as to ensure healthy team dynamics; ensure a team charter is put in place in which the projectÃ¢â¬â¢s goals are clearly stated; ensure regular meetings are held between team members in order to brainstorm on topical issues through forms such as retreats; organize training and simulation exercises in the team by subdividing the team into subgroups that simulate healthy rivalry such as tug-of-war and ice breaking; delegate tasks so as to encourage trust in the team; promote collective responsibility in the team for mistakes committed by individual team members rather than apportioning blame for failure or inefficiency; establish appropriate conflict resolution tec hniques; carry out continuous appraisal and review onÃ individuals so as to curb inefficiency; introduce awards for significant achievements; keep the team focused so as to overcome any obstacles and finally, recognize the performing stage the team is currently in such as the peak period so as o maintain a consistent focus.(Argyris, 1976) References Argyris, C. (1976). Increasing Leadership Effectiveness. New York: Wiley. Avolio, B. J. (2003). Leadership Models, methods and Applications. John Wiley Sons Inc.. Lencioni, P. The Five Dysfunctions of a Team: A leadership Fable. J-B Lencioni. Marcus Buckingham, C. C. (2008). First, Break All the Rules: What the World's Greatest Managers Do Differently. Nahavandi, A. (2006). The art and science of leadership.